08 September 2015 (morning)
Watch the class here
In accordance with the scriptures and Vaisnava philosophy, Krsna is not our aradhya-deva (worshippable deity). Who is our aradhya-dev? Srimati Radhika. The definition of tattva-darsan is as stated:
aradhyo bhagavan vrajesa-tanayas tad-dhama vrndavanam
rtamya kacid upasana vraja-vadhu-vargena va kalpita
srimad-bhagavatam pramanam amalam prema pum-artho mahan
sri-caitanya mahaprabhor matam idam tatradarah na parah
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, is worshipped along with His transcendental abode Vrndavana. The most pleasing form of worship for the Lord is that which was performed by the gopis of Vrndavana. Srimad-Bhagavatam is the spotless authority on everything and pure love of Godhead is the ultimate goal of life for all men. These statements, for which we have the highest regard, are the opinion of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.”
(Caitanya-matta-manjusa by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura)
Srila Visvanatha Cakravartipad explained in this sloka – aradhyo bhagavan vrajesa tanayas. Vrajesa tanayas, the son of Nanda Maharaj, Vrajendranandana Krsna, is our worshipable Deity. This is tattva-darsan because Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krsnas tu bhagavan svayam.
In rasa-tattva, Srimati Radhika is our worshipable Deity. She is our aradhya-deva as defined in the puranas on Radha Stotram.
gṛhe rādhā vane rādhā rādhā pṛṣṭhe puraḥ sthitā
yatra yatra sthitā rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (1)
jihvā rādhā śrutau rādhā rādhā netre hṛdi sthitā
sarvāńga-vyāpinī rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (2)
pūjā rādhā japo rādhā rādhikā cābhivandane
smṛtau rādhā śiro rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (3)
gāne rādhā guṇe rādhā rādhikā bhojane gatau
ratrau rādhā divā rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (4)
mādhurye madhurā rādhā mahattve rādhikā guruḥ
saundarye sundarī rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (5)
rādhā rasa-sudhā-sindhu rādhā saubhāgya-mañjarī
rādhā vrajāńganā-mukhyā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (6)
rādhā padmānanā padmā padmodbhava-supūjitā
padme vivecitā rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (7)
rādhā kṛṣṇātmikā nityaḿ kṛṣṇo rādhātmako dhruvam
vṛndāvaneśvarī rādhā rādhaivārādhyate mayā (8)
jihvāgre rādhikā-nāma netrāgre rādhikā-tanuḥ
karṇe ca rādhikā-kīrtir mānase rādhikā sadā (9)
kṛṣṇena paṭhitaḿ stotraḿ rādhikā-prītaye param
yaḥ paṭhet prayato nityaḿ rādhā-kṛṣṇāntigo bhavet (10)
ārādhita-manāḥ kṛṣṇo rādhārādhita-mānasaḥ
kṛṣṇākṛṣta-manā rādhā rādhā-kṛṣṇeti yaḥ paṭhet (11)
1) Radha is in the home, Radha is in the forest, and She is both behind and before me. I worship the all-pervading Radhaji, wherever She is present.
2) Radha is on my tongue, Radha is in my ears, Radha is in my eyes and inside my heart. I worship Radhaji, who is within the bodies of all.
3) Radha is in my puja, Radha is in my mantra-japa, Radha is in my prayers, Radha is in my memory, and Radha is in my head – I worship that Radhaji.
4) Whenever I sing, I sing about the qualities of Radha, everything I eat is Radha’s prasada, wherever I go I always remember Radha, Radha is in the night, Radha is in the day – I worship that Radhaji.
5) Radha is the sweetness within anything that is sweet; of anything that is important, Radha is the most important; and of everything that is beautiful, Radha is the supreme beauty – I worship that Radhaji.
6) Radha is an ocean of nectarean rasa, Radha is the flower-bud of all good fortune, Radha is the foremost gopi of Vraja – I worship that Radhaji.
7) Because Radha’s face is like a spotless lotus flower, She is known as Padma. She is worshipped by Brahma who appeared on the lotus emanating from Visnu’s navel, and when She was first discovered by Her father, She was resting upon a lotus – I worship that Radhaji.
8) Radha is eternally immersed in Sri Krsna, Krsna is certainly always immersed in Radha, and Radha is the queen of Vrndavana – I worship that Radhaji.
9) Radha’s name is on the tip of my tongue, Radha’s beautiful form is always before my eyes, descriptions of Radha’s fame are always in my ears, and Radha always resides in my mind.
10) Whoever regularly recites with great care this prayer spoken by Sri Krsna will attain loving service for the feet of Sri Radha-Krsna.
11) Srimati Radhika worships Sri Krsna in Her heart and mind, and Krsna worships Srimati Radhika in His heart and mind; Sri Krsna attracts Radhika’s heart and mind, and Radhika attracts Krsna’s heart and mind. Whoever lovingly recites this prayer will become similarly attracted to the lotus feet of Sri Radha-Krsna.”
Krsnera pathitam, means Srimati Radhika recites stava-stuti eveyday. Krsna also says, “Srimati Radhika is My aradhya-devi“.
So, Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami also explained, madīśā-nāthatve vraja-vipina-candraṁ vraja-vaneśvarīṁ (Manah-siksha, verse 9 & Vilap-kusumanjali, verse 7). Meaning, mad-isa, “my Ishvari“, is Srimati Radhika.
For Gaudiya Vaisnavas, Srimati Radhika is their aradhya-devi. Hence, the philosophy has to darshan, tattva-darshan and rasa-darshan. In tattva-darshan, Krsna is Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and He has innumerable potencies, shakti. Cid-sakti, jiva-shakti and maya-shakti but His cid-shakti is very important.
kṛṣṇera ananta-śakti, tāte tina–pradhāna
‘cid-sakti’, ‘māyā-śakti’, ‘jīva-śakti’-nāma
“Krishna has unlimited potencies, which can be divided into three main parts. These are the spiritual potency, the material potency and the marginal potency, which is known as the living entities.”
(CC, Madhaya-lila 3.8.151)
‘antaraṅgā’, ‘bahiraṅgā’, ‘taṭasthā’ kahi yāre
antaraṅgā ‘svarūpa-śakti’–sabāra upare
“In other words, these are all potencies of God-internal, external and marginal. But the internal potency is the Lord’s personal energy and stands over the other two.”
(CC, Madhaya-lila 3.8.152)
viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetra-jñākhyā tathā parā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate
“The internal potency of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, is spiritual, as verified by the śāstras. There is another spiritual potency, known as kṣetra-jña, or the living entity. The third potency, which is known as nescience, makes the living entity godless and fills him with fruitive activity.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.6.154)
Krsna creates the transcendental world, cid-jagat with His cit-shakti (internal potency). Vaikuntha, Ayodhya, Dvaraka, Mathura, Vrndavan – Krsna manifests with His cit-shakti. Cid-shakti is also known as antaranga-sakti (internal potency). Cit-shakti or antaranga-shakti, is internal potency. Maya-sakti (acit-shakti, a-cit = not-cit) is the external potency. Krsna creates the material world with His bahiranga-sakti (external potency). Jiva-shakti is tatastha-sakti, marginal potency of The Lord. Mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah, the living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts (Bhagavad-gita 15.7). Krsna said to Arjuna, “Mamaivāṁśaḥ, all the living entities are My parts and parcels, and they also manifested from My abhinivamsa-shakti, tatastha-shakti“. Amongst these potencies, antaranga-shakti, the internal potency is topmost.
sac-cid-ānanda, pūrṇa, kṛṣṇera svarūpa
eka-i cid-shakti tāṅra dhare tina rūpa
“Lord Kṛṣṇa’s body is eternal [sat], full of knowledge [cit] and full of bliss [ānanda]. His one spiritual energy manifests three forms.”
(Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, chapter 4, verses 61)
ānandāṁśe hlādinī, sad-aṁśe sandhinī
cid-aṁśe samvit–yāre jñāna kari’ māni
“Hlādinī is His aspect of bliss; sandhinī, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.”
(Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, chapter 4, verses 62)
According to Krsnadasa Kaviraj Gosvamipad, the svarūpa-sakti is composed of three forms, sat, cit, and ananda, full of eternity, full of knowledge and full of bliss. Therefore, His potency, or Svarupa-shakti, also manifest in three forms, sandhini-shakti (existence potency), samvit-shakti (knowledge potency) and hladini-shakti (pleasure potency)
hlādinī sandhinī samvit
tvayy ekā sarva-saṁsthitau
tvayi no guṇa-varjite
“O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hlādinī, sandhinī and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities.”
(Vishnu Purana, 1.12.69 & CC, Adi-lila 1.4.63)
The above is also confirmed in Visnu Purana. There is also reference in Chaitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila 6.158-159.
kṛṣṇake āhlāde, tā’te nāma–‘hlādinī’
sei śakti-dvāre sukha āsvāde āpani
“The potency called hlādinī gives Kṛṣṇa transcendental pleasure. Through this pleasure potency, Kṛṣṇa personally tastes all spiritual pleasure.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.157)
From His hladini, pleasure potency, Krsna relishes all kinds of mellows. He also gives pleasure to His devotees. Hladini means ananda, pleasure. Where is the potency of ananda, pleasure? The five senses. Example, admiring the beauty, giving pleasure (ananda) to the eyes. Sweet fragrance through the nose. Many pleasure potencies are there. The savouring of sweet taste, that is also a pleasure. The touch of the skin, this is soft and this is hard. Here is also pleasure potency. According to the object of the senses, pleasure is there. The ears, pleasure potency of listening to the sweet melody, sound. The best sound is the sound of the flute of Govinda. Govinda venu dhani. There are many types of sound in this material world. The science of sound. The vibration creates different kinds of pleasure in our heart through the waves of sound. The vibration provides pleasure to the ears and enters the heart.
So, the topmost vibration is the sound of the flute of Govinda, Govinda venu dhani. When Krsna plays the flute, everybody’s heart is captivated. From small insects to Brahma, every living entity is enchanted. The vibration of the sound is very powerful. In the heavenly planets, there is one kalpa-vrksa, desire tree. Every day, early in the morning the sweet young girls, apsaras (damsels) used to pick the flowers from the desire tree. When the vibration of the flute of Govinda entered the heavenly planets, their body of the damsels started to tremble. All the flowers the heavenly planets showered Krsna. The beings thereat were unable to control their bodies, mind, clothes, et cetera. As like earthquake, unable to walk or sit. Everything is affected by the tremor. So when Krsna plays the flute, the vibration of the flute travelled to the heavenly planets and causing dizziness. They were thinking, “What happened ?” This is incomprehensible. The happiness in their hearts as a result of this vibration is inconceivable. Even to those who are very expert at different kinds of melodies, such as …. Rsi. He is very expert in different kinds of melodies of the sound but his head also started to spin, thinking, “Where is this sound coming from? What kind of melody is this ?” The vibration of the flute, “klim”. K-L-I-M. Klim. This vibration is the bija-mantra.
vṛndāvane ‘aprākṛta navīna madana’
kāma-gāyatrī kāma-bīje yāṅra upāsana
“In the spiritual realm of Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa is the spiritual ever-fresh Cupid. He is worshipped by the chanting of the Kāma-gāyatrī mantra with the spiritual seed klīm.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.138)
Vṛndāvane ‘aprākṛta navīna madana’, Krsna is transcendental, ever fresh Cupid. Aprakrta Madhava. And kāma-gāyatrī kāma-bīje yāṅra upāsana, He is worshipped by Kama gayatri-mantra and bija-mantra. Bija-mantra is the seed of all mantras. Bija-mantra, the sound ‘klim’. When you are chanting gayatri-mantra, there is ‘klim’ or ‘om’. Om bhur bhuvah.
Klim. When this vibration appears, everybody’s head starts to spin. Giving so much pleasure, ananda. The ananda, pleasure is beyond our imagination. So much bliss, ananda is there. In this material world, happiness is wanted. Everyone is searching for different types of happiness. Bhojananda (bliss of feasting), relishing delicious food. Svayamnanda, enjoying luxury like sleeping on the soft bed. Jnanananda, the eagerness of gathering knowledge. Some people so much and yet, unsatified with their knowledge. Then finally, they become mad because of too studying and not sleeping. The brain is overload causing these group of people to become mad. And the Jnani gives up everything and become Brahman. “Aham brahmasmi”. Jnani means too much studying. Jnana also, according to their knowledge they finally become brahman, calm and quiet. Premananda, when prema (divine love) arises, so much pleasure potency arrives. That is unlimited. After premananda, comes Rasananda, the bliss of divine mellows. Transcendental bliss comes in the stages of santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, madhurya-prema, madhurya-rasa. The ocean of the divine mellows, aprakrta rasa samudra.
rādhā-preyān vidhur jayati
“Let Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, be glorified! By virtue of His expanding attractive features, He subjugated the gopīs named Tārakā and Pāli and absorbed the minds of Śyāmā and Lalitā. He is the most attractive lover of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and is the reservoir of pleasure for devotees in all devotional mellows.”
(Bhakti rasamrta-sindhu 1.1.1 & CC, Madhaya-lila 3.8.142)
Srila Rupa Gosvamipad wrote this sloka in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. ‘Akhila-rasamrta-murtih’, Krsna is called the embodiment of the ocean of the divine mellows. Then Radharani, Srila Rupa Goswamipad wrote, is even more glorified than Krsna, about Srimati Radhika. She is called radha-rasa-sudha-nidhi.
Vairagya sindhu karunaika sindhu lavanaika sindhu premaika sindhu. Sapta Sindhu, seven oceans. In Srimad-Bhagavatam, it is stated there are seven oceans. The ocean that we see is lavan-samudra, the ocean of the salt. The water of the ocean is salty, undrinkable, not even a drop. After lavan-samudra is dadhi-samudra, the ocean of yoghurt follows by the milk ocean, ghee ocean, other. Srimati Radhika is the seven types at any one time. That is vairagya sindhu karunaika sindhu lavanaika sindhu premaika sindhu. Vairagya sindhu, She is very expert to speak very nice, beautiful, sweet words. Karunaika Sindhu, Srimati Radhika is the embodiment of divine compassion, karunaika sindhu. Karuna means compassion. Feeling others pain, the heart melts giving so much love and affection. This is karunaika sindhu.
When Srimati Radhika was a child of about three or four years old, She was feeding grass to the calves. A small calf of one or two days old does not know how to eat. However, Srimati Radhika tried to feed the newborn calf. As the calf does not know how to eat, it was just sniffing with the nose. As the tip of the grass touched the nose, it bled. When Srimati Radhika saw the blood coming out from the nose of the baby calf, She began to cry and tore off Her cloth to wipe the nose of the newborn calf. Her heart melted when She saw the drop of blood coming from the nose of the newborn calf. This is karunaika sindhu. Srimati Radhika is the embodiment of the ocean of compassion. Karunam kuru mayi karuna bharite sanaka sanatana varnita carite (from the Radhika stava by Srila Rupa Gosvami). Karunaika sindhu, Srimati Radhika is the embodiment of the ocean of compassion.
Lavanaika sindhu – Srimati Radhika is the ocean of effulgence. Her complexion is as like molten gold, tapta kancana gaurangi. So much effulgence coming from Her body illuminating everywhere. Lavana means effulgence of Her body is as like a golden lotus. Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami explains the complexion of Srimati Radhika.
mahyam atma-pada-padma-dasya-dastu radhika
“Srimati Radhika’s bodily complexion snatches away the pride of a golden lotus flower tinged with kunkuma, Her bodily fragrance reproaches the fame of a fragrant lotus sprinkled with saffron powder, and She fulfils all the desires of the prince of Vraja, Shri Krishna. May that Shrimati Radhika always bestows upon me the service of Her lotus feet.”
(Srimati Radhikastakam 3 from Suka-sari-stava)
Kunkumakta-kancanabja-garva-hari-gaurabha, pitanancitabja-gandha-kirti-nindi-saurabha. Kunkumakta-kancanabja, Shrimati Radhika’s bodily complexion snatches away the pride of a golden lotus flower tinged with kunkuma.
mahyam atma-pada-padma-dasya-dastu radhika
Lavanika sindhu, Srimati Radhika is the ocean of beauty, which enchants all the living entities.
smita-kānti–karpūra, tine–aṅge vilepana
“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s personal beauty is compared to the reddish powder known as kuṅkuma. Her affection for Her associates is compared to sandalwood pulp, and the sweetness of Her smile is compared to camphor. All these, combined together, are smeared over Her body.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.170)
Her beauty is so beautiful and radiant as like the colour of kunkum. And sakhī-praṇaya—candana, the love and affection for Her girlfriends is compared to the sandalwood pulp. Smita-kanti, very beautiful smiling face and effulgence from Her lips.
As explained, Srimati Radhika is hladini, Krsna’s hladini-sakti. Hladini-shakti, pleasure potency. Krsna relishes all kinds of mellow with His hladini-shakti, pleasure potency and He also gives them to all the living entities.
sukha-rūpa kṛṣṇa kare sukha āsvādana
bhakta-gaṇe sukha dite ‘hlādinī’–kāraṇa
“Lord Kṛṣṇa tastes all kinds of transcendental happiness, although He Himself is happiness personified. The pleasure relished by His pure devotees is also manifest by His pleasure potency.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.158)
hlādinīra sāra aṁśa, tāra ‘prema’ nāma
ānanda-cinmaya-rasa premera ākhyāna
“The most essential part of this pleasure potency is the love of Godhead [prema]. Consequently, the explanation of love of Godhead is also a transcendental mellow full of pleasure.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.159)
The essence of hladini-shakti is prema, divine love as explained by Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja. What is the essence of milk ? The essence of the butter is ghee. The processing of pure milk transforms into yoghurt. By churning the yoghurt, butter is produced. The essence of butter is ghee. In the same way, hladinira sara, the essence of the hladini-sakti, pleasure potency, ananda is call prema. Prema is higher than ananda. What do you want – butter or ghee? Ghee is the highest. Ghee is the essence of milk. So ananda, hladini-sakti, is as like butter. And prema is like ghee. And prema also manifests in different ways which gives pleasure to Krsna. Santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya.
When Srimati Radhika did maan, maan means anger, then Srimati Radhika gives pleasure to Krsna in santa-rasa. There is no servitude mood in santa-rasa. Only nistha, steadiness, one quality. The steadiness is with the istadev. Santa means nistha with one’s Istadev. In santa-rasa there is servitude mood.
A person may understand hari-katha as per his or her eligibility and qualification. Although people, in general, are unable to understand, still Gurudev is giving discourses. By listening again and again, gradually one will come to an understanding. As like a baby learning to walk. The baby falls down and picked himself up again, trying time and again. And finally, the baby is able to run. Likewise, one day the brain will work. There is no other option but to listen.
Srimati Radhika is the pleasure potency of Krsna. The essence of hladini is prema, divine love. In this prema, divine love, Srimati Radhika gives pleasure to Krsna in different ways – santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya. Srimati Radhika gives pleasure to Krsna in santa-rasa, neutral mood through Her maan, anger. This is also for Krsna’s pleasure. Srimati Radhika did this maan is out of pleasure for Krsna. As with all other activities of Srimati Radhika is solely for the pleasure of Krsna.
Bhakti means all the activities should be exclusively for the pleasure of Krsna. One has to sleep for the pleasure of guru and Krsna. If one sleeps well, that person will be attentive during class. So, before going to class, rest well. And during class, the eyes should stay open and be attentive. Therefore, sleep is for the pleasure of guru and Krsna. This goes the same for sustenance to nourish one’s body to work for guru and Krsna. Everything is for the pleasure of Krsna. Guru and Krsna. Gopis’ only activities are for the exclusive pleasure of Krsna. They dress beautifully and with their neat hairdo just for the pleasure of Krsna. If one’s hair is dissolved or as like flames of fire, then Krsna will think that one is a demon. Putana has arrived. If one wishes to be in front of Krsna, one must presentable. Not as like flames of the fire. Put on beautiful tilaka and dress nicely for Krsna’s pleasure.
In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami very clearly explains, that gopis’ do everything only for Krsna’s pleasure. Srimati Radhika did maan, anger, only for the pleasure of Krsna, Govinda. During this time, santa-rasa is present. There is no other mood. There is only one quality santa rasa, nistha, steadiness. “He is My heart and soul, love”. This is santa-rasa. No servitude mood. In dasya-rasa, servitude mood, there are two qualities. They are the mood of servitude, seva, and steadiness, nistha. In sakhya, three qualities. Nistha, dasya and fraternal mood (sakhya). As for vatsalya, there are four qualities – nistha, dasya, sakhya and parental mood (vatsalya). And madhurya, conjugal mood, has five qualities – nistha, sakhya, dasya,vatsalya and conjugal mood (madhurya). The mood of lover and beloved. Only Krsna seva, one can serve in conjugal mood. It is not possible to serve Lord Ramacandra in madhurya. One cannot worship Lord Ramacandra as like a beloved. One cannot say, “Lord Ramacandra is my husband” or “Lord Ramacandra is my beloved”. Ramacandra accepts only one wife, Sita. And there are no any lover and beloved. However, one can serve Krsna in this way, “Krsna is my husband” or “Krsna is my beloved”. Srimati Radhika serves Krsna with all five rasas – santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya. Especially with the paramour mood. It is not possible to serve Lord Ramacandra with paramour mood. The gopis’ serve to Krsna in their internal mood in paramour mood, parakiya-bhava.
hlādinīra sāra aṁśa, tāra ‘prema’ nāma
ānanda-cinmaya-rasa premera ākhyāna
“The most essential part of this pleasure potency is the love of Godhead [prema]. Consequently, the explanation of love of Godhead is also a transcendental mellow full of pleasure.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.159)
All kinds of rasas are in the heart of Srimati Radhika, and Srimati Radhika serves Krsna in many different ways. Then again also prema, when it becomes more condensed, that is called mahabhava.
“The essential part of love of Godhead is called mahābhāva, transcendental ecstasy, and that ecstasy is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.160)
The quintessence of mahabhava is divine love. The essence of mahabhava is the embodiment of Srimati Radhika. Example, there may be different types of sweet made of sugar like lion, tiger, cow, but all of this is only sugar. Whatever form it is made, it is only sugar.
Whatever the shape is, all of them are sweets because all of this is only sugar. Hence, different gopis are actually the embodiment of mahabhava, mahabhava svarūpini. Their hands, legs, even hair, everything is made of mahabhava, mahabhava svarūpini. Actually Srimati Radhika expands Herself in many different shape of the gopis’. Srimati Radhika is thinking: “How will I give pleasure to Krsna?” So Her different moods manifested different forms of the gopis.
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
“Sri Govinda, Who is all-pervading and Who exists within the hearts of all, resides in His Goloka-dhama along with Sri Radha, who is the embodiment of His pleasure potency and the counterpart of His own spiritual form. She is the epitome of transcendental rasa, and is expert in sixty-four arts. The are also accompanied by the sakhis, who are expansions of Sri Radha own transcendental body, and who are infused with blissful, spiritual rasa. I worship that original personality, Sri Govinda.”
(Brahma-samhita, 5.37 & CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.163 )
Srimati Radhika manifested different forms. Her Lalit mood is called Lalita-devi. Lalita sakhi gives pleasure to Krsna. Srimati Radhika, one of Her forms manifested as Lalita-devi. Srimati Radhika manifested Her special mood called, Visakha. Rūpa Manjari is Srimati Radhika Herself in a special form.
nijānurūpe prabhur eka-rūpe
tatāna rūpe svavilāsa-rūpe
“Indeed, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, whose dear friend was Svarūpa Dāmodara, was the exact replica of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and he was very, very dear to the Lord. Being the embodiment of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s ecstatic love, Rūpa Gosvāmī was naturally very beautiful. He very carefully followed the principles enunciated by the Lord, and he was a competent person to explain properly the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Śrī CaitanyaMahāprabhu expanded His mercy to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī just so he could render service by writing transcendental literatures.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.19.121)
Different different moods, same Srimati Radhika manifested different forms of gopis, sakhis, for the exclusive pleasure of Krsna. So for this regard sastra explain:
tabhir ya eva nija-rūpataya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhūto
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
“Sri Govinda, Who is all-pervading and Who exists within the hearts of all, resides in His Goloka-dhama along with Sri Radha, who is the embodiment of His pleasure potency and he counterpart of His own spiritual form. She is the epitome of transcendental rasa, and is expert in sixty-four arts. Accompanied by the sakhis, who are expansions of Sri Radha own transcendental body, and who are infused with blissful, spiritual rasa. I worship that original personality, Sri Govinda.”
(Brahma Samhita 5.37 & CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.163)
Govinda, Bhagavan is very expert in all kinds of art. He is especially expert in enjoying the sixty-four types of art. In this regard, Srimati Radhika gives pleasure to Him in different forms. Krsna is rasik-siromani and Srimati Radhika is rasikaa-siromani. Rasik-siromani, crowns of jewels of all rasas because prema comes two ways, rasik and rasika. One can understand and relish the mellow, rasa, when one has the knowledge of rasas. However, if you have no knowledge even if I speak, you cannot understand. It is just like playing the flute in front of the buffalo, he will only chew the grass instead. Knowledge of rasa, mellow is needed. So, when I speak you will be able to understand. For example, there are different scales for playing the harmonium. If you have no knowledge of the scales then it is not possible for you to play the harmonium according to tune I am humming. However, if you have the knowledge, you will be able to play accordingly. Like, there are many different kinds of techniques to play mrdanga, karatalas, the tunes arise in your heart, samhit (melody) inspired, samhit means sweet melodies. This is raga, means rasa. Inspired by many types of mellows, the heart is intoxicated by the sound vibration. During this time, one is unable to speak and the body begins to tremble. Then one will also forget about the body, thinking, “I am not this body, I am completely spirit soul, how is beautiful is this spiritual form” by submerging in the waves of the sound vibration. It is like swimming in the transcendental world, in the waves of divine love. One forgets this material body, ‘I am male’, ‘I am female’, ‘I am Russian’. The only thought at that time will be, ‘Oh! How beautiful this spiritual form is’. Now you are thinking you are Russian, but that is the material body. This material is as like a plastic bag filled with the unwanted of anger, lust – stupid nonsense. This is the plastic body. You will submerge in divine love, in the transcendental world, then you will forget this plastic body. And you will enjoy wondering where you are. You are a spiritual soul, aprakrta cid-atma.
Krsna is the expert in all kinds of art, especially in the 64 kinds of art. Similarly, Srimati Radhika is also very expert in the 64 arts. That is why She is able to give pleasure to Krsna.
Same feather flocks together. Example, the professionals fraternize with the professionals. The mad person makes friend with another of his type. It is incompatible for a fool to fraternize with an intelligent person and likewise. However, guru and Krsna are very merciful. This is the nature of guru and Krsna. They give their association to everyone even the foolish. This is the system. Otherwise, how will the foolish become intelligent? That is the reason guru and Krsna are giving their association due to their munificence and magnanimity. Guru and Vaishanavs understand that the general populace is completely foolish, do not know the meaning of the goal of life and refusal to listen. Nevertheless, Guru and Vaishanavs are still giving their association to the sanga. As like touchstone, when it touches the iron, the iron becomes gold. The touchstone turns the iron into gold but never turns gold into iron. Similarly, guru and Vaishnavs give their association by making the foolish person into guru and Vaisnava. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakurapada explained, ‘guru does not make disciples. Guru makes gurus”. This is the magnanimity and munificence of guru and Krsna. For this reason, they are giving their association. By increasingly listening to their hari-katha, one day your life will be successful. They know you cannot understand and your mind does not accept. Due to their magnanimity and munificence, they repeatedly force you to take this panacea.
apayayan mam anabhipsum andham
krpa ambudhih yah para-duhkha-duhkhi
sanatanah tam prabhum asrayami
“I was unwilling to drink the nectar of devotional service possessed of renunciation, but Sanātana Gosvāmī, out of his causeless mercy, made me drink it, even though I was otherwise unable to do so. Therefore he is an ocean of mercy. He is very compassionate to fallen souls like me, and thus it is my duty to offer my respectful obeisances unto his lotus feet.”
(Sri Vilap-kusumanjali, verse 6 by Raghunatha Das Goswamipad)
Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami glorified Srila Sanatana Gosvamipad by very humbly is paying obeisances to the lotus feet of Srila Sanatana Gosvamipad, “O’ How merciful Sanatana Gosvamipad is. I don’t want to relish the highest mellows of Goloka Vrndavana, but Sanatana Gosvamipad by force he fed me these sweet mellows’.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave His sweet teachings to Srila Rūpa Gosvamipad, because Rūpa Gosvamipad is qualified. Mahaprabhu said, “I realized Rūpa is qualified so I shall give all the treasure of My heart to Rūpa”. Caitanya Mahaprabhu also requested all of His devotees, Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, Raya Ramananda, Svarūpa Damodara others in the assembly to give their blessings to Rūpa Gosvami. As like a mother giving her breast milk, she also feeds her baby with cow’s milk. A Mother is not happy by just her breast milk. She thinks that her breast milk alone is not sufficient for the baby. So, she is happier when it is complemented with the cow’s milk as well. Mother has so much vatsalya, parental mood to her child. She is not happy and satisfied by just breastfeeding. Mother Yasoda is milking the cows, making it into yoghurt, then churning the butter. In this way, Mother Yasoda personally and lovingly prepares many kinds of milk products for the pleasure of Krsna, Krsna-seva.
In the same way, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu has so much love and affection for Rūpa Gosvamipad. He gave all His blessings to Rupa Goswmipad. He gave all the treasure of His heart to Rūpa Gosvamipad. And simultaneously He requested all the Vaisnavas, “Hey! Svarūpa Damodara, Hey! Raya Ramananda, Hey! Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya and all of you, give your blessings to Rūpa”. More and more. So much parental mood, vatsalya-bhava, for Rūpa Gosvamipad.
Similarly, Srimati Radhika gives pleasure to Krsna in every way. Yet, She still is not satisfied. She is thinking, “I have to manifest many forms, then I can give pleasure to Krsna”. This is the meaning of love. Love means that you give everything to the one you love, but still you are not satisfied, and still wants to provide more and more. Love means everything is sacrificed, but still not satisfied. You still wish to give more. How to provide more? In this way, Srimati Radhika expanded many forms like Lalita, Visakha, Rūpa Manjari, many other different forms to give pleasure to Krsna. Srimati Radhika can fulfil all Krsna’s desires, but without many consorts, Krsna will not be happy. That is why, Srimati Radhika manifested many different forms, Lalita, Visakha, Rūpa Manjari, Rati Manjari. Actually, all the gopis are all non-different from Srimati Radhika. Try to understand this Radha-tattva of who is Srimati Radhika. She is the pleasure potency of Krsna, ananda-sakti, in every pleasurable way for the sole satisfaction of Krsna. To understand this, it all begins from Adau sraddha tatah sadhu-sanga, bhajana-kriya, anartha-nivrttih, nistha, ruci, asakti, bhava, prema. Then prema develops – sneha, maan, pranaya, raga, anuraga, bhava, mahabhava, rudha, adiruddha, mohan, madan. This madanakiya mahabhava is only in Srimati Radhika. But the first step is sraddha. Sraddha is not an ordinary faith but spiritual faith. If even a little bit of spiritual faith enters the heart, then life will be successful. In this life, sraddha will manifest. Sraddha means spiritual faith. Now you have laukika-sraddha (material faith). Spiritual faith is not so easy to attain.
How do you know if you have spiritual faith or not? If I chastise you, will you be able to tolerate? If I chastise, then you will disappear. That means you have no spiritual faith. When you have spiritual faith, then you will never give up guru and never give up harinama.
khanda khanda hai’ deha yadi jaya prana
tabu ami vadane na chadi harinama
(Chaitanya Bhagavat 16.94)
“Even if my body is cut into thousands of pieces, I will never give up guru and I will never give up harinama”. In simple words, this is called “do or die” mentality. And with very strong faith – “This life I will do bhajan and sadhan”. Hladini-sakti. Never give up guru and never give up harinama.
Give proper respects to Vaishanavs accordingly. Never criticise Vaishanavs. Always be very meek and humble. Trnad api sunicena – “Everybody is Vaisnava, I am not Vaisnava”. This is called humility, dainya, and this is the teaching of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Always think, “All are higher Vaisnavas, I am lower Vaisnava”. Whoever is thinking that “I am higher Vaisnava, and the others are lower Vaisnavas”, they are stupid nonsense. That means they are not in the category of devotees. Always remember, those who are thinking, “I am higher, and they are lower”, that means that person has not much qualities of Vaisnava. Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings, kabe ha’be bolo se-dina āmār (āmār) aparādha ghuci’, śuddha nāme ruci – “When will the day come, when I give up all kinds of offenses, aparadhas, and I will chant the holy names?”. The song, Kabe ha’be bala by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur is as follows: –
kabe ha’be bala se-dina amara
(amara) aparadha ghuci’, shuddha-name ruci,
kripa-bale ha’be hridaye sancara (1)
“Please tell me, when will that day be mine when my offences will end and a taste for the pure holy name will be infused in my heart by Your mercy?”
trinadhika hina, kabe nija mani’,
sahishnuta-guna hridayete ani’
sakale manada, apani amani,
ha’ye asvadiba nama-rasa-sara (2)
“When will I feel myself lower than a blade of grass, and when will the quality of tolerance come in my heart? When I will show respect to all others and not seek honour for myself, then I will taste sri-nama-rasa, the nectar of the holy name.”
dhana jana ara, kavita-sundari,
baliba na cahi deha-sukha-kari
janme-janme dao, ohe gaurahari!
ahaituki bhakti carane tomara (3)
“Wealth, followers, beautiful women as described in worldly poetry – I do not want any such bodily pleasures. O Gaurahari, please give me unmotivated devotion to Your lotus feet birth after birth.”
(kabe) karite shri-krishna-nama uccarana,
pulakita deha gadgada vacana
vaivarnya-vepathu, ha’be samghatana,
nirantara netre va’be ashru-dhara (4)
“When, while uttering shri krishna-nama, will my body be thrilled in ecstatic rapture with my hairs standing on end, my words choked with emotion, pallor and trembling occurring, and streams of tears flowing constantly from my eyes?”
kabe navadvipe, suradhuni-tate,
gaura-nityananda bali’ nishkapate
naciya gaiya, bedaiba chute,
batulera praya chadiya vicara (5)
“When, in Navadvipa on the banks of the Ganga, will I run about, calling out without duplicity, “O Gaura! O Nityananda!” and dancing and singing like a madman, unaware of the outside world?”
kabe nityananda, more kari’ daya,
chadaibe mora vishayera maya
diya more nija-caranera chaya
namera hatete dibe adhikara (6)
“When will Nityananda Prabhu be merciful to me and release me from the trap of sense enjoyment? When will He give me the shade of His lotus feet and allow me to enter the marketplace of the holy name?”
kiniba, lutiba, hari-nama-rasa,
nama-rase mati’ hoibo vivasha
rasera rasika-carana parasha,
kariya majiba rase anibara (7)
“I shall buy and plunder the nectar of the name of Hari and, becoming thoroughly intoxicated by that nama-rasa, I shall become stunned. By touching the feet of those great souls who are able to relish that rasa, I will drown continuously in the sweet nectar of the holy name.”
kabe jive daya, haibe udaya,
nija-sukha bhuli’ sudina-hridaya
bhakativinoda, kariya vinaya,
shri-ajna-tahala karibe pracara (8)
“When will compassion for all fallen souls awaken in me? When will this Bhaktivinoda, forgetting his own happiness, with a meek and soft heart set out to propagate by humble entreaty the sacred order of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu?”
Kabe ha’be bala se-dina amara, trinadhika hina, kabe nija mani’, “When will I think that I am very fallen, and insignificant as the blade of grass?” trinadhika hina, kabe nija mani’ sahishnuta-guna hridayete ani’, always think that “I am very fallen, everybody is higher”. Those who think that they are the higher guru, and others are the lower guru. That means they are stupid nonsense. That means they are not in the line of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. They are stupid nonsense. Neglect them. What is the teaching of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu?
tṛṇād api su-nīcena
taror iva sahiṣṇunā
kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ
“One who thinks himself lower than the grass, who is more tolerant than a tree, and who does not expect personal honour yet is always prepared to give all respect to others can very easily always chant the holy name of the Lord.”
(CC, Adi-lila 17.31)
Always be very humble – “They are higher, I am lower”. tṛṇādhika hīna, kabe nije māni’, sahiṣṇutā-guṇa hṛdoyete āni’ – Bhaktivinoda Thakura said, “When will the day come, when I will think that I am very insignificant as like the blade of grass?” sakale mānada, āpani amānī, “When will I give respect all the living entities?” If you are coming in the line of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, then sraddha is coming. This sraddha is the first fraction of mahabhava. Therefore, we go through the following process of sraddha, sadhu-sanga, bhajana-kriya, anartha nivrtti, nistha, ruci, asakti, bhava, prema, sneha, maana, pranaya, raga, anuraga, bhava, mahabhava, rudha, adiruddha, mohan, madan.
Sraddha is the first fraction of mahabhava. As discussed in Radha-tattva, Srimati Radhika is the embodiment of mahabhava. Krsnadas Kaviraja Gosvami explained as follows.
premera parama-sara ‘mahabhava’ jani
sei mahabhava-rupa radha-thakurani
“The essential part of the love of Godhead is called mahābhāva, transcendental ecstasy, and that ecstasy is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.”
(CC, Madhya 3.8.160)
sei mahābhāva haya ‘cintāmaṇi-sāra’
kṛṣṇa-vāñchā pūrṇa kare ei kārya tāṅra
“That supreme ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the essence of spiritual life. Her only business is to fulfil all the desires of Kṛṣṇa.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.164)
mahābhāva-cintāmaṇi’ rādhāra svarūpa
lalitādi sakhī–tāṅra kāya-vyūha-rūpa
“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost spiritual gem, and the other gopīs- Lalitā, Viśākhā and so on-are expansions of Her spiritual body.”
(CC, Madhya-lila 3.8.165)
This is a very nice explanation about radha-tattva. Premera svarupa bhava preme param sar, the essence of prema is called mahabhava, The essence of mahabhava is Srimati Radhika. And sei mahabhava haya cintamani sar, that is called mahabhava, that is Srimati Radhika.
Kṛṣṇa-vāñchā pūrṇa kare ei kārya tāṅra, Srimati Radhika’s duty is to fulfil all the Krsna’s desires, exclusively for His pleasure. Srimati Radhika is thinking, “I can fulfil all the desires of Krsna but without many consorts, Krsna will not very pleased”. For this regard, Srimati Radhika expanded Herself in many forms such as Lalita, Visakha, Rūpa Manjari, Rati Manjari, and all others.
Lalitādi sakhī–tāṅra kāya-vyūha-rūpa, Lalita, Visakha, all the gopis, actually they are non-different from Srimati Radhika. Lalita devi, Visakha, Rūpa and Rati Manjaris, how do they fulfil the Krsna’s desires? Krsna is one and the potency is also one. Shakti and shaktiman. One shakti. Krsna is one, That means shakti is also one. That potency is Srimati Radhika. Sakti-saktimatayor abheda (the energetic and the energy are non-different), Sakti and saktiman are always stay together, they are inseparable from each other. As like fire. The fire and the heat exist together. In the same way, Srimati Radhika always stays with Krsna. They are inseparable. Two ways, mūrta and amūrta, manifest and unmanifest. It is explained in the Upanishad, Shakti shaktimatayor abheda – there is no difference between sakti and shaktiman. Shaktiman is always with His shakti. We too have power. So, we are walking. Looking, so there is shakti (power of vision) by which you can see. You are hearing, sravana-shakti, so you have power. Dhan-shakti, means power of smelling. By dhan-shakti, we can differentiate between the good and bad smell coming. Shakti is always there, sometimes manifest and sometimes unmanifest.
Similarly, Krsna’s shakti is Srimati Radhika, antaranga-shakti. Through this shakti, Krsna performs all kinds of His lila. Another shakti of Krsna is iccha-sakti, desire potency. When iccha-sakti arises, then the lila-sakti arranges the lila, pastimes. You are sitting here. When the desire to stand up, you stand. You are sitting here. Then you think, “I will stand up”. The desire to stand up. Desrire shakt, iccha-sakti. Many kinds of delicious Prasad in front of you. Then you also desire, “I will take prasadam”. And when you are hungry, then there is desire but if you are not hungry, then there is no desire to eat. So the desire potency is called iccha-sakti. When Krsna’s iccha-sakti, desires, Yogamaya arranges all kinds of lilas. So Krsna explains this in Upanisad, eko ’ham bahu syam (Chandogya sruti 6.2.1), “I am one, but when I am thinking, desire, then I manifest many forms and many lilas through agency of My desire potency”. So, Srimati Radhika knows, “I can give pleasure and fulfils all the desires of Krsna. Srimati Radhika knows, “Oh, Krsna is not happy without many consorts”. Caitanya-caritamrta (1.4.80) states, bahu kāntā vinā nahe rasera ullāsa, without many consorts, there is not such exultation in rasa. Hence, Srimati Radhika manifested many forms of the gopis such as Lalita, Visakha, Rūpa Manjari, Rati Manjari and many more.
Bolo Radharani ki Jay!
Transcriber: Govinda Priya didi (LT)
Editor: Janardan das (UK)